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Up to now, Stack has been using a number of CI solutions:

There are a number of problems we’re running into:

  • Travis’s lack of resources and limited build times lead to unreliability of tests, which are frequently hitting Travis’s 50 minute time limit even with all dependencies cached. I don’t think we’ve ever gotten the macOS build to complete. We’ve also seen a lot of network instability which leads to spurious build failures.

  • Running integration tests with Gitlab CI gets us past the resourcing/timeout problems, but Gitlab CI doesn’t integrate well with Github (e.g., showing test status for pull requests), which rules out moving all tests to it.

  • For Gitlab CI, we have to manage a Gitlab runner on an EC2 instance, and pay costs of the EC2 instance that hosts it.

  • Using multiple CI services increases complexity and maintenance burden.

Azure LogoBack in September, Microsoft announced Azure Pipelines, a new CI/CD service that integrates with Github, provides unlimited free build minutes, a 20 hour time limit for jobs, and supports all three major platforms (Linux, macOS, and Windows). This looked very intriguing, and we’ve been trying it out with success.

  • Most builds complete in less than 15 minutes.

  • All three platforms are building reliably (when there are test failures, they are legitimate).

  • Unit tests are run on every push.

  • Integration tests are run nightly on the master and stable branches, and nightly binaries are published as artifacts.

  • There is now one place to see the status of all automated tests.

Converting all the existing pipelines was not trivial, but also not overly difficult. See the YAML configurations for unit tests, nightly integration tests, and templates they reference.

The Azure Pipelines UI is not very intuitive. In particular, adding a second pipeline (for nightlies) was confusing, and it’s hard to find settings and options.While we are generally happy with Azure Pipelines, that is not to say everything is perfect:

  • Parts of the CI configuration (such as scheduled builds) are not controlled by the YAML files and must be configured through the UI.

  • Azure Pipelines does not have built-in support for caching. For Stack, this isn’t a big deal since built-in caching solutions are rarely a great fit for large Haskell projects, so we use the cache-s3 tool to manage a cache in an S3 bucket.

  • We’ve found bugs, such as an incompatibility between bash and powershell tasks.

  • This ties us a bit more closely to Microsoft, and it’s unknown whether they’ll offer all the features we use for free indefinitely. That said, we’re already tied to Microsoft by using Github (which Microsoft has acquired), and moving to a different CI platform in the future isn’t terribly difficult should it turn out to be necessary.

We’ve added a page to the Stack documentation with details on how to enable Azure Pipelines for your own Haskell projects.

Any contributions to move other commercialhaskell or fpco repos over to Azure Pipelines would be welcome (we don’t necessarily plan to move them all over immediately if Travis is working well enough, but happy for help any time).